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DESIGN AND CONSULTANCY
The goal of a design consultant is to suggest design ideas that incorporate functionality and aesthetics. Design consultants can specialize in interior design, fashion design or graphic design. All share the goal of creating a space or product that integrates form and function.
BUILDING MANAGEMENT (TEAMWORK, BUILDING SERVICES, MANAGEMENT)
Teamwork includes open communication and everyone contributing to improve the workplace to safely and successfully achieve the construction goal. Teamwork starts with pre-planning and organization. Setting clear expectations guides everyone to work toward the common goal of a successful, safely built project.
Building services are the systems installed inbuildings to make them comfortable, functional, efficient and safe. Building services might include:Building control systems. Energy distribution. Energy supply (gas, electricity and renewable sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and biomass).
A building management system (BMS), otherwise known as a building automation system (BAS), is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building's mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems.
CCTV (closed-circuit television) is a TV system in which signals are not publicly distributed but are monitored, primarily for surveillance and security purposes.CCTV relies on strategic placement of cameras and private observation of the camera's input on monitors.
CCTV is commonly used for a variety of purposes, including:
- Maintaining perimeter security in medium- to high-secure areas and installations.
- Observing behavior of incarcerated inmates and potentially dangerous patients in medical facilities.
- Traffic monitoring.
- Overseeing locations that would be hazardous to a human, for example, highly radioactive or toxic industrial environments.
- Building and grounds security.
- Obtaining a visual record of activities in situations where it is necessary to maintain proper security or access controls
- Observation of high-crime areas or neighborhoods.
In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource. The act of accessing may mean consuming, entering, or using. Permission to access a resource is called authorization.
When it comes to protecting your home or business, as well as the building’s occupants, access control is one of the best ways for you to achieve peace of mind. But, access control is much more than just allowing people to access your building, access control also helps you effectively protect your data from various types of intruders and it is up to your organization’s access control policy to address which method works best for your needs. There are a number of access control systems you have to choose from to use in your residence or business facility; some outperform others. Outlined below are overviews of the three basic types of access control systems that are available to your company so you can see which are best suited for your day-to-day operations.
The Three Types of Access Control Systems
In brief, access control is used to identify an individual who does a specific job, authenticate them, and then proceed to give that individual only the key to the door or workstation that they need access to and nothing more. Access control systems come in three variations:
- Discretionary Access Control (DAC)
- Mandatory Access Control (MAC)
- Role Based Access Control (RBAC).
1. Discretionary Access Control (DAC)
Discretionary Access Control is a type of access control system that holds the business owner responsible for deciding which people are allowed in a specific location, physically or digitally. DAC is the least restrictive compared to the other systems, as it essentially allows an individual complete control over any objects they own, as well as the programs associated with those objects. The drawback to Discretionary Access Control is the fact that it gives the end user complete control to set security level settings for other users and the permissions given to the end user are inherited into other programs they use which could potentially lead to malware being executed without the end user being aware of it.
2. Mandatory Access Control (MAC)
Mandatory Access Control is more commonly utilized in organizations that require an elevated emphasis on the confidentiality and classification of data (ie. military institutions). MAC doesn’t permit owners to have a say in the entities having access in a unit or facility, instead, only the owner and custodian have the management of the access controls. MAC will typically classify all end users and provide them with labels which permit them to gain access through security with established security guidelines.
3. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
Also known as Rule-Based Access Control, RBAC is the most demanded in regard to access control systems. Not only is it in high demand among households, RBAC has also become highly sought-after in the business world. In RBAC systems, access is assigned by the system administrator and is stringently based on the subject’s role within the household or organization and most privileges are based on the limitations defined by their job responsibilities. So, rather than assigning an individual as a security manager, the security manager position already has access control permissions assigned to it. RBAC makes life much easier because rather than assigning multiple individuals particular access, the system administrator only has to assign access to specific job titles.
Fire alarm and Detection System
Fire detection systems are designed to discover fires early in their development when time will still be available for the safe evacuation of occupants. Early detection also plays a significant role in protecting the safety of emergency response personnel. Property loss can be reduced and downtime for the operation minimized through early detection because control efforts are started while the fire is still small. Most alarm systems provide information to emergency responders on the location of the fire, speeding the process of fire control.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit to the positive terminal. When a battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy reactants to lower-energy products, and the free-energy difference is delivered to the external circuit as electrical energy. Historically the term "battery" specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to include devices composed of a single cell.
On Call Services
On Call Service is a one stop home service solutions that helps busy families get their home service needs like repairing, cleaning, appliances repairing through
24/7 Service Maintenance
In commerce and industry, 24/7 or 24-7 service is service that is available any time and, usually, every day. The numerals stand for "24 hours a day, 7 days a week". Less commonly used, 24/7/52 (adding "52 weeks") and 24/7/365 service (adding "365 days") make it clear that service is available every day of the year.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and even hand cranks
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light source like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight.
There are three basic types of lighting you should layer in a room in order to accomplish this:
- Ambient or general lighting.
- Accent lighting.
- Task lighting.
1. Ambient or general lighting
The term ‘general lighting’ or ‘ambient lighting’ refers to the background levels of light in a particular space. In the majority of workspaces the minimum level of general lighting is determined in line with best practice guides to ensure safety and enable everyday visual tasks to be performed comfortably and efficiently.
General lighting may be provided solely by artificial lighting or a combination of artificial and natural light. In such cases it is now becoming increasingly common to adjust the level of artificial lighting in line with the amount of natural daylight entering space to maintain minimum levels while reducing energy consumption.
The introduction of new light sources such as LED has also enabled the colour temperature of artificial lighting to more closely resemble natural daylight, thereby creating a more natural feel to the lighting in the space. When combined with sophisticated control systems the colour of the general lighting can also be varied during the course of the day to more closely mimic natural daily and seasonal variation in daylight.
In applications such as retail the general lighting provides a background against which accent lighting is used to highlight specific displays of merchandise. In such cases the interaction between general and accent lighting is essential in creating the right ambience to support the shopping experience.
In other workspaces the general lighting may be supplemented with task lighting to provide higher light levels or specific colour rendering properties for specific tasks.
2. Accent lighting
Accent lighting focuses light on a particular area or object. It is often used to highlight art or other artifacts. Common types of accent lights include wall sconces, floodlights, recessed lights, torchère lamps, or track lighting. The brighter light from the accent lamp creates visual interest to a room.
3. Task lighting
Often task lighting refers to increasing illuminance to better accomplish a specific activity. However, the illuminance level is not the only factor governing visibility. Contrast is also important, and a poorly positioned light source may cause contrast reduction, resulting in loss of visibility. The most important purpose of task lighting in the office is not increasing illuminance, but improving contrast. General lighting can be reduced because task lighting provides focused light where needed.
Different strategies for task lighting exist. The three main approaches are:
- Localized average lighting, where a lamp supplies both ambient light and task light
- Freely adjustable task light such as a gooseneck, balanced-arm lamp, or swing-arm light.
- Asymmetric task light, where the lamp is placed at the side of the work area
There are also other approaches to task lighting, for example under-shelf luminaires.
Other instances of task lighting are in machinery, where a specific work area needs illumination, and in workshops, where a task light may illuminate the actual working area. Special instances of task lighting are examination and operation lights for medicine and surgery, as well as the dentist's lamp. Task lamps are also used for many home tasks such as sewing, reading, small repairs, model construction, crafts, writing, and many other activities. The actual task may range from very small up to about as far as you may reach with your hands or available tools. Lighting of larger areas is beyond the scope of task lighting.
A Lightning Arrester, Surge arrester or Line arrester is a device used on electrical power systems and telecommunications systems to protect the insulation and conductors of the system from the damaging effects of lightning. The typical Lightning Arrester has a high-voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge) travels along the power line to the Arrester, the current from the surge is diverted through the Arrestor, in most cases to the earth.
Without good earth connections, even the most sophisticated of building lightning protection installations will be ineffective. However, the only way to ensure that the earth connections really are good is to test them. If protection fails or is absent, lightning that strikes the electrical system introduces thousands of kilo Volts that may damage the transmission lines, and can also cause severe damage to transformers and other electrical or electronic devices.
Surge arresters are devices that help prevent damage to apparatus due to high voltages. The arrester provides a low-impedance path to ground for the current from a lightning strike or transient voltage and then restores to a normal operating conditions. A surge arrester may be compared to a relief valve on a boiler or hot water heater. It will release high pressure until a normal operating condition is reached. When the pressure is returned to normal, the safety valve is ready for the next operation. When a high voltage (greater than the normal line voltage) exists on the line, the arrester immediately furnishes a path to ground and thus limits and drains off the excess voltage. The arrester must provide this relief and then prevent any further flow of current to ground. The arrester has two functions, it must provide a point in the circuit at which an over-voltage pulse can pass to ground and second, to prevent any follow-up current from flowing to ground.
High and Low Voltage equipment
High voltage is used in electrical power distribution, in cathode ray tubes, to generate X-rays and particle beams, to demonstrate arcing, for ignition, in photomultiplier tubes, and in high power amplifier vacuum tubes and other industrial and scientific applications.